Medical Malpractice Lawsuit Timelines and Outcomes: What to Expect Staff Profile Picture
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Medical malpractice lawsuits can be an extremely complex and time-consuming process. Nearly 29% of medical malpractice lawsuits from 2017-2021 were claimed to be due to treatment errors, while 26% had to do with misdiagnosis and over 24% had to do with surgical errors. These lawsuits can be emotionally draining and become a financial burden due to the time it takes to complete. In this article, we will cover a wide range of topics about medical malpractice lawsuits and the timeline of the case. If you or someone you know has been the victim of medical malpractice or negligence, use this as a guide to answer some of the most critical questions you may have. Whether you’re in the infant stages of your lawsuit or nearing the end, this guide can help you know what to expect in your medical malpractice lawsuit.

Statute of Limitations in Medical Malpractice Cases

Depending on where you live and the particulars of your case, the medical malpractice statutes of limitations may change.

A statute of limitations is a deadline by which a lawsuit must be filed. This means that you must bring a lawsuit within a specific window of time following the claimed malpractice in order to collect compensation in the case of medical malpractice. State-to-state and even between different jurisdictions within a state, the statute of limitations duration might vary. The statute of limitations for medical malpractice cases can range from many years in certain states to as little as one year in others.

It's important to remember that some jurisdictions have "discovery rules" that might change the statute of limitations. If the patient does not become aware of the malpractice until a later period, such as when a misdiagnosis is detected, these regulations extend the deadline for launching a claim. For this reason, Texas is one of the states with a lengthier statute of limitations for medical malpractice claims. 

Consultation with an experienced lawyer who focuses on medical malpractice cases is the best method to determine the statute of limitations for a medical malpractice case in your region. They can assist you in understanding your legal options and give you the most precise and recent information on the laws in your jurisdiction.

Does Waiting Hurt Your Case?

Waiting to file a medical malpractice claim will reduce your chances of success because it can weaken the credibility of your witnesses and evidence, as well as the result of your case as a whole. The longer you wait to file a medical malpractice lawsuit, the greater the chance that crucial pieces of evidence will be misplaced or destroyed or witnesses will forget critical details. Furthermore, if you wait too long, the statute of limitations might have run out, and you won't be able to file a lawsuit at all.

Establishing a direct correlation between the medical professional's acts and any injuries or damages you may have sustained as a result might be more challenging when a medical malpractice case is delayed. This can undermine your argument and make supporting your allegations in court more challenging.

How Long Does a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit Take?

Depending on several variables, the time it takes to resolve a medical malpractice claim can vary greatly. Some cases might be resolved relatively quickly, while others might take a while to come to a determination. In general, the complexity of the case, the volume of evidence that must be obtained and examined, and the particular court procedures in your jurisdiction will all affect how long it takes to conclude a medical malpractice claim.

Settlement talks might also impact the duration of medical malpractice litigation. The lawsuit might be handled much more quickly than if it goes to trial if both parties can reach a settlement agreement early in the process.

It's important to note that filing an appeal can considerably prolong the duration of a medical malpractice lawsuit. The length of the lawsuit may increase by many months or even years if either side chooses to appeal the court's ruling.

What Affects the Timeline of a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit?

The timeline of a medical malpractice lawsuit can be affected by several factors. These factors include:

  • Complexity of Case: If a medical malpractice case involves complex medical issues or legal questions, it may take longer to gather and analyze evidence, depose witnesses, and prepare for trial.

  • Damages Amount Claimed: Cases that involve larger amounts of damages may take longer to resolve, as the stakes are higher, and both parties may be more willing to fight harder to achieve their desired outcome.

  • Court Procedures: The specific court procedures in your jurisdiction can also impact the timeline of a medical malpractice case. Some courts may be able to resolve cases more quickly than others, depending on their backlog of cases and their specific processes for handling medical malpractice claims.

  • Settlement Negotiations: If both parties can reach a settlement agreement early on in the process, the case may be resolved much more quickly than if the case goes to trial.

  • Discovery Disputes: Discovery is the process of gathering and exchanging evidence in a legal case. If there are disputes or disagreements over the scope or timing of discovery, this can add significant time to the length of a medical malpractice case.

  • Appeals: If either party decides to appeal a decision made by the court, this can add several additional months or even years to the length of the case.

  • Witness Availability: If key witnesses in your case are unavailable or difficult to locate, this can delay the timeline of your case. It may take additional time to locate and depose these witnesses, which can impact the overall timeline of your case.

  • Insurance Company Involvement: In some cases, insurance companies may be involved in the legal process. If an insurance company is responsible for paying damages in your case, their involvement can add additional layers of complexity to the legal process, which can impact the overall timeline of your case.

What Happens When You Win a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit?

You may receive a sense of justice and closure as well as monetary compensation for any losses you have endured as a result of medical malpractice if you are successful in winning your medical malpractice claim. The outcomes will depend on the particulars of your case. Common outcomes of winning a medical malpractice case include receiving damages to compensate for any losses or harm you endured, having the defendant take responsibility, and in some circumstances, restoring your reputation. 

For people who have suffered due to the incompetence and malpractice of the healthcare provider, winning a medical malpractice case can be a substantial financial and emotional victory. 

What Happens If You Lose a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit?

On the flip side, losing a medical malpractice lawsuit can have a negative effect on you emotionally and financially. Losing a lawsuit means that the court has found that the defendant, whether a doctor, hospital or other medical professional, was not liable for the harm you suffered as a result of their actions. If you lose your case, you may face these outcomes:

  • You may not receive any financial compensation: If you lose a medical malpractice lawsuit, you will not be awarded any financial compensation for the harm you suffered. This means you will be responsible for any medical bills, lost wages, and other damages you incurred due to the malpractice.

  • You may be responsible for paying the defendant's legal fees: If you lose a medical malpractice lawsuit, you may be responsible for paying the defendant's legal fees. This can add a significant financial burden on top of any damages you have already incurred.

Are Medical Malpractice Settlements Public Record?

Settlements for medical misconduct are not required to be disclosed. The settlement terms can be kept private, and frequently as part of the settlement, the plaintiff and defendant will both sign a confidentiality agreement. As a result, the settlement's specifics—including the sum of the award—are kept confidential.

Settlements for medical malpractice might occasionally end up in the public domain. The settlement may end up in the public domain, for instance, if it results from a case that was filed in court. Medical malpractice settlements that exceed a specific threshold in some states may also be recorded in a state database or made available to the public upon request. Furthermore, if a medical malpractice case proceeds to trial and a jury returns a verdict, the result and the financial penalties imposed are made public. This implies that the public will have access to information about the trial's other specifics, including the amount of compensation granted.

What Happens if My Case Is Dismissed?

If your medical malpractice case is dismissed, it means that the court has decided not to proceed with the case. Dismissal can happen for several reasons, including lack of evidence, failure to follow proper legal procedures, or failure to meet the statute of limitations. If your case is dismissed, you will not receive financial compensation. You will have to pay for your legal fees and possibly the defendants. However, there are options if your case is dismissed. There is still hope.

What Happens to Payments if the Case Is Dismissed? 

Unfortunately, if the courts dismiss the medical malpractice lawsuit, there will be no payment of damages to the plaintiff.

How Is a Dismissal Different From Losing Your Case? 

Even though your medical malpractice case was dismissed, it does not mean that it is lost or over. A dismissal occurs when the court decides to end the case before a verdict is reached. The dismissal can happen for several reasons, such as a lack of evidence, failure to follow proper legal procedures, or failure to meet the statute of limitations. In a dismissal, there is no verdict rendered by a judge or jury and no determination of whether or not medical malpractice occurred.

On the other hand, losing a medical malpractice lawsuit means that the court has heard the evidence presented and rendered a verdict that the defendant was not liable for the plaintiff's injuries. Losing a lawsuit can happen after a full trial or even during settlement negotiations. In a loss, the court has decided that the defendant did not commit medical malpractice and is not responsible for any damages.

What Kind of Records Remain After a Case Is Dismissed?

Even if your medical malpractice case is dismissed, several records and documents related to the case will remain. Court records related to the case, such as the initial complaint, any motions or responses submitted to both parties and the order of dismissal will remain. Medical records related to the plaintiff’s treatment and care produced during the discovery period will also remain, along with any attorney-client communications and settlement agreements.

Can I Appeal the Ruling?

If a judge has ruled in favor of the defendant in your medical malpractice case, you still may have the opportunity to appeal the ruling in a higher court if you believe an error has been made in the judgment. The higher court will review the case and the decision made by the lower court. 

Can You Appeal the Result of a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit? 

Yes, you are allowed to appeal the verdict in a medical malpractice case. Depending on the specifics of the case, the grounds for appeal may change. However, generally speaking, the appealing party must demonstrate that a legal mistake was made during the trial that had an impact on the result of the case. The appealing party can claim, for instance, that the trial court erred in admitting or rejecting particular evidence, that the jury received erroneous legal instruction, or that the trial court erred in how it applied the law to the facts of the case.

How Many Times Can You Appeal? 

The laws of the jurisdiction where the case was filed determine how many times you may appeal a medical malpractice decision or judgment. As long as there are valid reasons for the appeal and the appealing party follows the correct processes, there is generally no cap on how many times a matter can be appealed.

It's crucial to keep in mind that the appeals process can be drawn out, expensive, and potentially more challenging with each subsequent appeal. Additionally, in some jurisdictions, there might be limitations on the number of times a case can be appealed or restrictions on the arguments that can be made on appeal.

Can You Use the Same Medical Malpractice Attorney for Your Appeal?

You can use the same medical malpractice lawyer for your appeal, yes. In fact, because they are already aware of the specifics of your case and the legal arguments that have been brought up, it can often be advantageous to work with the same attorney who represented your case at trial.

The appeals procedure, however, can differ dramatically from the trial process, and appellate counsel calls for a different set of abilities and knowledge than trial advocacy. It's crucial to deal with a lawyer who has experience handling appeals for this reason, even if they also represented you at trial. If you choose to retain the same lawyer for your appeal, be sure to talk to them about their experience and credentials in handling appeals. You should also ask them how they intend to approach the appeal differently from the trial. Another smart move is asking for recommendations from previous clients who have collaborated with the lawyer on appeals.

Are Medical Malpractice Settlements Taxable?

Whether a medical malpractice settlement is taxable or not depends on the specific circumstances of the settlement. In general, damages awarded in a medical malpractice settlement or verdict are not considered taxable income under federal law.

Compensation for physical injuries or sicknesses, such as medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering, is generally not taxable. However, any portion of a settlement or verdict that is designated as compensation for lost wages or lost profits may be subject to taxes.

The tax treatment may be more difficult if a medical malpractice award includes money for mental distress or other intangible damages. In general, compensation for mental agony or emotional pain that is directly connected to a physical illness or injury is not subject to taxation. However, the compensation might be taxable if the emotional distress is unrelated to a physical illness or injury.

It's crucial to keep in mind that state and local taxes may also apply to medical malpractice settlements, and how they are treated may differ depending on the state's tax rules.

What Kind of Income Is a Medical Malpractice Settlement?

Depending on the specifics of the settlement, a medical malpractice payout may be regarded as income or may not. Generally speaking, financial compensation for bodily harm or illness, including hospital bills, reduced earnings, and pain and suffering, is not regarded as taxable income. However, taxes might apply to any portion of a settlement or judgment allocated as restitution for lost wages or revenue. Additionally, any interest or other income derived from the settlement funds might be regarded as taxable income.

Does the Court Care How You Spend Your Medical Malpractice Settlement?

The court often has little authority or oversight over the use of the settlement money once a medical malpractice settlement has been negotiated and the case is completed. The plaintiff controls the settlement money, and they are free to utilize it in any way they see suitable.

However, there are some circumstances in which the court might intervene in the use of the settlement money. To ensure that the settlement money is appropriately handled and used for the plaintiff's advantage, the court could order that a portion of the settlement money be put into a trust or structured settlement account if the plaintiff is a minor or otherwise unable to manage their own finances.

Additionally, if the settlement includes compensation for medical expenses or other costs that were incurred as a result of the medical malpractice, the plaintiff may be required to provide documentation to the court showing that the settlement funds were used to pay those expenses.

What Factors Into a Settlement Amount?

There are a number of factors that can affect the settlement amount of a medical malpractice lawsuit. In this section, we’ll cover how these factors can affect how much money you are awarded in a medical malpractice settlement.


Typically, in these cases, the more serious the injury the patient has suffered, the higher the compensation amount will be. For example, if the malpractice has resulted in an amputation, the compensation will be significantly larger.

Distribution of Fault 

Some states will determine compensation based on the distribution of fault or comparative negligence, as some states call it. This means that the courts may determine that both the defendant and the plaintiff share the fault and that the defendant must pay a certain percentage of the claimed amount from the plaintiff. For example, if they determine that 90 percent of the fault is on the defendant and the plaintiff claims $100,000 in compensation, the courts will award the plaintiff $90,000. 

Pain and Suffering 

Pain and suffering damages are often awarded in addition to economic damages, such as medical expenses and lost wages. Unlike economic damage, pain and suffering damages are more difficult to quantify because they are not based on specific financial losses. Factors that may be considered in determining pain and suffering damages in a medical malpractice lawsuit can include the severity of the injury or illness, the length of time the plaintiff suffered, the impact the injury had on the plaintiff's quality of life, and the emotional distress caused by the malpractice.

Medical Costs 

Medical costs can play an important factor in determining how much the awarded compensation is. If there are any additional medical costs associated with the malpractice and the result of it, the plaintiff may be able to recoup those costs from the defendant. This can include expenses for any additional surgeries, medical equipment, medical modifications to residences or vehicles as a result of the injuries sustained, and other medical-related costs. 

Lost Wages 

If the plaintiff has missed time at work or even lost their job as a result of the malpractice, they may be entitled to claim lost wages on their compensation. Attorneys may rely on expert witnesses to determine exactly how much was lost by the plaintiff. Lost wages that are awarded in a medical malpractice case may be considered to be taxable income. 

Who Pays in a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit: When and How

In the following section, we will cover who pays what in a medical malpractice lawsuit, when they pay, how they may make these payments, and to whom they pay.  


A plaintiff in a medical malpractice case often pays for legal counsel on a contingency fee basis, which means that the attorney's fees are deducted from the settlement or award the client receives if they win in the case. This arrangement is intended to increase the accessibility and affordability of legal representation for plaintiffs who might not have the financial means to pay a lawyer upfront.

Usually, the plaintiff does not have to pay their attorney's costs if they lose the lawsuit. However, they can still be liable for further lawsuit costs like court charges, expert witness fees, and other expenditures. Sometimes, the lawyer will agree to pay these expenses up front and deduct them from the plaintiff's settlement or award.


If the defendant in a medical malpractice case is determined to be responsible for the plaintiff's injuries or harm, they must compensate the plaintiff. A settlement agreement or a judicial decision is the determining factor. If the defendant and plaintiff agree to a settlement, the defendant will typically agree to give the plaintiff a certain sum of money in order to end the case. The payment can be made as a one-time lump sum or as part of a structured settlement that includes a series of payments.

The court may grant the plaintiff damages if the case proceeds to trial and the plaintiff wins. The amount of the award will then be due from the defendant. The defendant can also be obligated to cover additional court costs and fees. In some circumstances, the defendant might have liability insurance, which would cover any damages the plaintiff was granted. In other situations, the defendant might be expected to foot the bill out of pocket. It's crucial to remember that obtaining a settlement or judgment might take time, and the defendant may have the right to appeal the ruling. 

How Medical Malpractice Lawyers Get Paid 

Most medical malpractice attorneys are paid on a contingency fee basis, which means they are only compensated if they successfully prosecute their clients' claims or reach a favorable settlement. This kind of price structure is intended to increase accessibility for clients who might not be able to afford the initial costs of a case. The attorney's fee is often a portion of the money obtained if the client prevails in court or negotiates a settlement. Although the proportion may change, it usually amounts to about one-third of the recovery. The attorney does not get paid if the client loses the lawsuit or receives no compensation.

In addition to the contingency fee, the client may also be responsible for other costs and expenses associated with the lawsuit, such as court fees, expert witness fees, and other expenses. In some cases, the lawyer may agree to cover these costs upfront and then recoup them from any settlement or award the client receives.

How Long It Takes to Get a Medical Malpractice Settlement

Depending on a number of variables, the time it takes to receive a medical malpractice payout can vary greatly. While some cases can be settled amicably through settlement talks, others may require a lengthy trial and appeal process in order to be decided. The intricacy of the case, the scope of the requested damages, and the defendant's receptivity to negotiations can all affect how long it takes to reach a settlement. The duration of the trial and the appeals procedure, should one be necessary, can also affect the timeframe.

Depending on the situation, a medical malpractice case can be resolved in a few months to a few years. If the lawsuit gets to trial, it may last several days or even weeks. Settlement negotiations may take several months. Appeals may lengthen the procedure further.

Can I get a pre-settlement loan for my medical malpractice case?

Yes, it is possible to obtain a pre-settlement loan for a medical malpractice case. Pre-settlement loans are a sort of funding that gives plaintiffs cash upfront while they wait for their cases to be settled. They are also referred to as lawsuit funding or litigation finance. Pre-settlement funding organizations can offer cash advances to help plaintiffs pay for costs like medical bills, rent, and other living expenses while they wait for their cases to be settled. The strength of the case and the prospective settlement or verdict amount may affect the amount of funding that is available.

Pre-settlement funding might be risky if the case is unsuccessful because it frequently carries hefty interest rates and costs. Before pursuing this option, it's important to speak with a lawyer or financial advisor because some states have restrictions on pre-settlement funding.

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